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The Sea Surgeon's Dispensatory, Page 18

Part 2: Compounds

Medicine Preparation
Medicine Preparation, Italian Apothecary (18th century)
Compound medicines or 'compounds' are those that involved combining and processing of the simple ingredients. Compound medicine have been divided into eleven categories in the Sea Surgeon's Dispensatory: Waters, Syrups, Juices, Preserves, Powders, Electuaries, Pills and Troches [Lozenges], Oils, Ointments, Plasters, Cerates (Prepared Waxes) and Other Compositions.

Most of these compounds involve processing of the simple ingredients to create more refined versions of them such as juices, powders, preserves, electuaries and ointments. A few involved limited chemical processing.

As explained previously, while many of the ingredients were available to sea surgeons, they generally did not make up these medicines at sea, but purchased them pre-made by apothecary shops who were better equipped for and versed in the manufacture of compound medicines. The exception here are John Moyle's special compositions, which are listed as Moyle-Composition rather than just Moyle.

Compounds: Waters

This section includes waters made using simple ingredients. Chemical Laboratory
18th Century Chemical Laboratory, From Commercium Philosophico-Technicum,
by William Lewis, Frontispiece, (1763
)
Nearly all of these waters are distilled. It could successfully be argued that these should be placed in the last part of this dispensatory - chemicals - since distilling was considered a form of chemical processing. However, most dispensatory and pharmacopoeia writers listed them with the compounds, so we will do so as well.

In broad terms, there are two types of distilled waters - simple and compound. Simple waters were distilled from a single type of ingredient while compound waters were made from a variety of ingredients. Simple distilled waters were thought to retain the humoral properties of the ingredient they were distilled from, so the humoral properties of the simple ingredients are considered relevant.

In addition to waters, this category also contains decoctions, elixirs, foments, gargarisms or gargles, spirits, tinctures, vinegars and wines. Decoctions are waters where the ingredients are concentrated by boiling. Elixirs are sweetened mixtures of alcohol and water. Foments are medicated waters applied to the skin. Spirits are distilled liquids. Tinctures are medicines dissolved in liquid, often alcholic in nature.


Acetum Distillate (Vinegar Distillate)

Listed in: Tweedy: Acetum1

Category: Compound - Water

Glass Retort
Photo: Jorge Royan
Glass Retort on Burner, Lavoisier Lab, Munich
Rx: "Put of good Wine Vinegar into a large Retort [A closed vessel with an outlet tube, used for distillation, sublimation, or decomposition by heat], or Body fitted with a Head what quantity you please, so that onlie third part remains empty: place it in a Sand-Furnace [a furnace that heats a container of sand in which the vessels are set], and with a Fire of the first degree2, draw off a fifth part, which keep by it self; for it will serve for some uses: then increase the Fire to the second degree3, and so continue until all is distill'd, except a small quantity left in the bottom of the Vessel, of the Consistence of Honey. When all is cold, take off the Receiver, and if it is desir'd rectify'd, put it into a clean Vessel: set it in the same degree of Fire, to separate more Phlegm; and in every thing proceed as before, till the bottom is almost dry; which, however, must not be urged too far, for fear it should give an Empyreuma [the smell of decomposition from being burnt in a close vessel] to that which is already distill'd."4

Description: "It is principally us'd in other Preparations for Dissolution [dissolving solids in liquids] or Precipitation [the separation of a dissolved solid from a liquid]."5

1 "158. John Tweedy's Bill for Medicines. November 8, 1743". Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, John Franklin Jameson, ed., p. 460; 2 "To make a Fire of the first Degree, two or three Coals lighted will suffice to raise a most gentle Heat." From Nicolas Lemery & A. Bell, A Course of Chymistry, 4th ed., 1720, p. 46; 3 "For a Fire of the second Degree three or four Coals will serve, to give such a Heat as is able sensibly to warm a Vessel, but so as a Hand may be able to bear it for some Time." From Nicolas Lemery & A. Bell, A Course of Chymistry, 4th ed., 1720, p. 46; 4 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 327; 5 Quincy, p. 327


Acetum Rosarum (Vinegar of Roses)

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Acetum Rosarum1

Red Roses
Photo: Wiki User Yellow Cat - Red Roses
Category: Compound - Water

Rx: "Take of red Rose buds gathered in a dry time, the whites cut off, dried in the shade three or four days, one pound, Vinegar eight Sextaries [a sextary is about an English pint], set them in the Sun forty days, then strain out the Roses; and repeat the infusion with fresh ones."2 Woodall has a different recipe, telling his readers "vineger of Roses is or ought to bee vineger of wine first, and then by the infusion of red rose leaves elect therein it is the more fragrant and cordiall, so that it is the better to aromatize the stomacke"3.

Uses: Acetum Rosarum is used "to refresh nature weakened, and against the fainting and great weakenesse of the spirits, wherein the tincture of roses hath a great vertue comfortative."4

"This is seldom prescrib'd, but to embrocate the Head and Temples in some kinds of the Head-Ach, in which it frequently does great service."5

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 64; 5 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 104; 3,4 Woodall, p. 64; 5 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 328


Acetum Vini (Vinegar of Wine)

Listed in: Woodall: Acetum vini1

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: "It is very questionable whether wine vineger bee of temperament hot or colde, considering the different effects thereof, for I should not doubt to give reasonable content to any unpartiall Artist that it doth both the effects of a hot and cold medicine, proving it both by authoritie and practise to be hot and cold, yea even by Galen [Italian physician Galen of Pergamon] himselfe"2.

Au Vinaigre
Photo: Simon Francis Ravenet - Au Vinaigre (18th c.)
Rx: "Vinegar. Acetum vini. Acidum acetosum. From wine, left exposed to the air, in pairs of casks, one full, the other only half full, but filled up daily from the other in turn: those wines that contain the most mucilage [gummy or gelatinous substance] are fittest for the purpose."3

Description: "Wine Vineger helpeth the unnatural swellings of the belly, as also cureth the fluxes of the stomacke, the parts grieved being fomented [bathed] therewith: it staieth the inordinate menstrual fluxes, the region of the liver or the bearing parts fomented therewith warme, namely with stupes [pieces of folded cloth] wet therein. It is good against vomiting, the stomacke outwardly fomented with warme stupes wet therein: It also discusseth [scatters] and dissipateth violent hot tumors in their beginning, yea even those which are named Panaritiæ [paronychia - foot rot], or as some tearme them felons. Good wine vineger excelleth, used in Cataplasmes; as also in fomentations where anodine [pain eliminating] Medicines are to be used, provided the place bee not excoriated [has damaged skin], as namely in Hernia humorali [swollen testicle]. With beane-meale, and oyle of Roses it is a present helpe well applied, with also apt trussings and care had. In the falling downe of the fundament [prolapsed anus] it is approved good, sometimes with wine used warme to foment the part withal, as also to bee cast on brickes to recieve the fume thereof [scented air was thought to improve health]. In the hotte Goute, and in all inflammations, as the Rose, or Ignis sacer, or as some call it Saint Atonies fire [intense inflammation of the skin], by way of fomentation with wine vineger it is a precious help, as also made into a sirupe with hony, then tearmed Oximell, or with sugar, then tearmed Oxisaccarum, it is very convenient to a weake stomacke, for it causeth appetite, and is a helpe to digestion, given {1 ounce} or {2 ounces} at once, for it cureth away flegme [plegm - one of the bodily humors] and refresheth nature, and corroborateth [strengthens] the stomacke, also by way of a Gargerisme [gargle]: it is an approved remedie againe Squinatie angina, or any of the suddaine inflammations of Columelle [nasal septum], or the Amigdales of the throte ['almonds of the throat' - tonsils], and if Roses be put therein, it is for all the aforesaid uses, yet more better, and it maketh the Vineger much the more cordiall."4

1,2 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 64; 3 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, 1821, p. 287; 4 Woodall, p. 64-5


Aqua Absinthi (Wormwood Water)

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Worme-wood Water1

Category: Compound - Water

Absinthi Artesma
Photo: H. Zell - Absinthi Artemisia Absinthium
Rx: "Take Common and Roman Wormwood, of each a pound; Sage, Mints, Bawm [lemon balm - Melissa], of each two handfuls; the Roots of Galanga[l], Ginger, Calamus and Aromaticus, Elecampane, of each three drams; Liquorice an ounce, Raisins of the Sun stoned [with seed] three ounces, Anniseeds and sweet Fennel seeds, of each three drams: Cinnamon Cloves, Nutmegs, of each two drams; Cardamoms Cubebs of each one dram. Let the things be cut that are to be cut, and the things be bruised that are to be bruised, all of them infused in twenty four pints of Spanish Wine, for twenty four hours, then distilled in an Alembick [alchemical still], adding two ounces of white Sugar to every pint of distilled water. Let the first pint be called the Spirit of Wormwood, the greater Composition."2

Description:"No water whatsoever more gratefull to the stomacke, then is Worme-wood Water truly composed, for it is as balsam thereto. It consumeth and breaketh winde mightily, killeth the wormes, whereunto our nation are subject in the East Indies, hindereth vomiting, provoketh appetite, is very good against paines in the head proceeding of a colde cause, and is very cordiall [good for the heart]."3

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 57; 2 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 88-9; 3 Woodall, p. 57


Aqua Angelica

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Angelica Water1

Category: Compound - Water

Wild Angelica
Wild Angelica Sylvestris
Rx: "Anglica eight ounces, of Carduus Benedictus six ounces, of Bawm [lemon balm - Melissa] and Sage, of each four ounces, Anglica seeds six ounces, sweet Fennel seeds nine ounces. Let the Herbs be dried and the seed be grosly bruised, to which add of the Species called Aromaticum Rosatum and of the Species called Diamoscha Dulce {compound medicines}, of each an ounce and an half; infuse them 2 days in thirty two pints of Spanish wine, then distil them with a gentle fire, and with every pound mix two ounces of Sugar dissolved in Rose water. Let the three first pound be called by the name of Spirit, the rest by the name of water."2

Description:"Angelica water may serve well in stead of Trekell [treacle] or Mithridate, for a preservative against the plague or any infectious aires, for there is no one thing more commended by ancient and moderne writers, in that kinde, then Angelica is, nor of more experiences, and is also very stomachicall and cordiall [good for the heart], and being truely made will retaine his strength and vertues forty yeeres and more."3

"The chief end of composing this Medicine was to strengthen the Heart, and resist infection, and therefore it is very wholsome in Pestilential times, and for such as walk in stinking Air. ['Bad air' was believed to cause disease.]"4

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 89; 2 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 89; 3 Woodall, p. 57-8; 4 Culpeper, p. 89


Aqua Anisi

Listed in: Woodall: Anis-seed water1

Anise
Artist: Franz Eugen Koehler
Anise Plants [Pimpinella anisum] (1887)
Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: hot and dry (aniseed)2; hot [calefies] and dry [siccates] in the second degree (aniseed)3; "hotte and drie in the third degree (aniseed)"4

Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."5

"Anise-seed Water. Aq. anisi. Collected in the distillation of the oil; carminative [used to treat internal gas buildup]."6

Description: "This water as the former [sassafras water], and also those which follow [other simple distilled waters], have all their substances from the Spirit of wine, and must therefore being truely so made, retaine the manifold good vertues thereof: and besides having therein the whole vertues of the Anis-seedes, it is found very excellent against winde in the stomack or else-where in the body, and against Asma [asthma], the Tisicke [tisic - tuberculosis of the lungs] and shortnesse of breath, it also breaketh flegme [phlegm, one of the bodily humors] and warmeth the stomacke."7

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 57; 2 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 43; 3 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 336; 4 Woodall, p. 99; 5 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, 1821, p.304; 6 Gray, p. 305; 7 Woodall, p. 57


Aqua Cardui Benedicti (Water of Blessed Thistle)

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Aqua Cardui Benedicti.1, Moyle: Aqua Carduus Benedict2

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: hot and dry in the 2nd degree (carduus benedictum)3; hot & dry in the second degree (carduus benedictum)4; "hot [califies - carduus benedictum]"5

Blessed Thistle
Blessed Thistle - Cnicus Benedictus
Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."6

"Carduus Water. Aq. cardui benedict. Leaves [of the plant] 8 pounds to the gallon [of water]".7

Description: "Carduus Benedictus Water, doth ease the paine of the head, confirmeth the memory, cureth a Quartane [fever recurring every three days, usually malarial in nature], provoketh sweat, and comforteth vitall Spirits."3 Physician Jean de Renou adds a number of uses for this water, advising that it "roborates [strengthens] the heart and vital parts, moves sudour [sweat], resists poisons, conduces against pestilential diseases, mitigates [eases] the dolours [distress] of the Reins [kidneys] and sides, kills Worms, and prevails against the bitings of Serpents."8

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 58; 2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 3 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 147; 4 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 23; 5 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 331; 6 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, 1821, p.304; 7 Gray, p. 305; 8 Woodall, p. 58


Aqua Celestis

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Aqua cœlestis1, Moyle: Aqua Cœlestis2

Category: Compound - Water

Matheolis
Matheolus, Creator of this Compound
Rx: "Take of Cinnamon an ounce, Ginger half an ounce, white, red and yellow Sanders, of each six drams;  Cloves, Galanga, Nutmegs, of each two drams and an half; Mace, Cubebs [Piper cubeba], of each one dram; both sorts of Cardamoms, Nigella seeds, of each three drams; Zeedoary [Curcuma zedoaria - white tumeric] half an ounce, seeds of Anise, sweet Fennel, wild Parsnips, Bazil [basil], of each a dram and an half; roots of Angelica, Avens [Geum], Calamus, Aromaticus, Liquorice, Valerian the less, the Leaves of Clary [Salvia sclarea or clary sage], Time [Thyme], Marjoram, of each two drams; the Flowers of red Roses, Sage and Rosemary, Betony, Stæchas [probably Lavandula stoechas - lavender], Bugloss, Borrage, of each one dram and an half: Citron peels three drams: Let the things be bruised that are to be bruised, and infused fifteen days in 12 pints of the best spirit of wine, in a glass bottle well stopped, and then let it be distilled in Balnea Mariæ [a double boiler] according to Art. Adding to the distilled water, Powders of Diambra, Diamoschu dulce, Aromaticum, Rosatum, Diamargariton frigidum, Diarbodon Abbatis, Powder Electuartie de Gemmis, of each 3 drams [these are all compound concoctions which take a paragraph each to explain]; yellow Sanders bruised 2 drams; Musk, Ambergreese, of each a Scruple tied up in a fine rag, clear Julep of Roses a pound, shake them well together, stopping the glass close with wax and parchment, till it grow clear, to be kept for your use."3

Description: "Matheolus [Matheolus Perusinus, 15th century professor of medicine] in his Commentaries upon [Pedanius] Dioscorides [1st century Roman physician] setteth downe this excellent water, as a principall Antidote or preservative against all poysons, or poysoned or infectious aires whatsoever, so that either received into the body, or but onely smelled unto, it helpeth very much against infections, and that it doth also very admirably restore againe one fallen either of the dead paulsie [Parkinson's disease] or falling sicknesse [epilepsy], and is also good either in the collicke or any gripings [pains] of the guts, as also in any the weaknesses of the stomacke, and against any colde fluxes of the guts or belly, mixed with some two spoonefuls in a glister [clyster - enema], and hath many more especiall good uses and vertues there set downe, which for brevity I must passe over."4

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 54; 2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 3 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 98; 4 Woodall, p. 54-5


Aqua Cinamomi (Cinnamon Water)

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Cynamon Water1, Moyle: Aqua Cynamon Fort2, Tweedy: Aq. Cinnamoni3

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: cold & dry in the 3rd degree (cinnamon)4; "good in both hot and cold diseases (cinnamon)"5; "warme"6

Camphor Tree
Photo: Wiki User Kenpei - Cinnamonum Camphora
Rx: "Take of bruised Cinnamon a pound and an half, Spanish Wine 2 pints. Infuse the Cinnamon in Wine 24 hours, then distil them in au Alembick [an alchemical still]; draw out three pints of strong waters (and small as much as you think sufficient) sweeten it with sugar sufficient, so keep it for your use."7

Description: "This Water doth comfort & strengthen the stomacke, the livor, the milt [spleen], the lungs, the heart, the braine and sinewes, sharpneth the sight, is good against venoms, as also the stingings and bitings of venomous beasts, helpeth a bad or evill favouring breath, is good against lothing of the stomacke, and where you desire to warme, to open, to attenuate [reduce the force of], digest or corroborate [combine], in all such cases this precious liquor excelleth, witnesse [16th century Swiss physician] Joannes Jacobus Wikerus alledging Mathiolus [Matheolus Perusinus, 15th century professor of medicine], yea and divers other famous writers, and Experience it selfe."8

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 55; 2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 3 "158. John Tweedy's Bill for Medicines. November 8, 1743". Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, John Franklin Jameson, ed., p. 457; 4 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 74; 5 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 385; 6 Woodall, p. 55; 7 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 97; 8 Woodall, p. 55


Aqua Cordial Fridga Saxony

Listed in: Moyle: Aqua Saxon fridg1

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: cools2

Blue Bottle
Photo: Manuel Flury - Blue Bottle (Centaurea Cyanus)
Rx: "Take of the juice of Borrage, Bugloss, Bawm [lemon balm - Melissa], Bistort, Tormentil, Scordium, Vervain, sharp pointed Dock, Sorrel, Goats Rue, Myrrh, blue bottle great & small, Roses, Marigolds, Lemmons, Citrons of each six ounces; Burnet, Cinquefoyl of each three ounces, white wine vineger, one Pound,; Purslain seed two ounces, Citron and Carduus seeds, of each haf an ounce; Water Lilly flowers, two ounces, the flowers of Borrage, Bugloss, Violets, Clovegilliflowers, of each one ounce; Diatrionsantalon [diatrion-santalon, a compound medicine] six drams: let all of them being rightly prepared, be infused three days, then distilled in a Glass Still; to the distilled liquor add earth[s] of Lemnos, Siletia and Salmos, of each one ounce and an half; Pearls prepared with the juice of Citrons three drams, mix them and keep them together."3

Description: "It mightily cools the blood [one of the four bodily humors], and therefore [is] profitable in Fevers, and all Diseases proceeding of heat of blood: it also provokes sleep. You may take half an ounce at a time, or two drams if the party be weak."4

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 2 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 94; 3 Culpeper, p. 93; 4 Culpeper, p. 94;


Aqua Cichory (Succory Water)

Listed in: Moyle: Aqua Cychoriæ1

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: cold in the second degree, dry (chichory)2; cools (chichory)3, "'Tis counted cold by some Authors; but its bitter Taste argues Heat (succory)"4

Chicory
Photo: Joaquim Alves Gaspar - Chicory Flower (Cichorium Intybus)
Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."5

"Succory Water. Aq. Cichorii. From the leaves; {8 pounds} to the gallon."6

Description: "The Water distill'd from the blue Flowers is an excellent Remedy for Inflammations and Dimness of the Eyes."7 Note that Pechey says the water is made from the flowers, not the leaves as Samuel Gray advises 100 years later. Pechey does say that, "The Leaves boyl'd, and eaten with Vinegar, cure a Gonorrhæa"8

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 2 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 144;3 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 41; 4 John Pechey, The Compleat Herbal of Physical Plants, 1707, p. 225; 5 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, 1821, p.304; 6 Gray, p. 306; 7,8 Pechey, p. 225


Aqua Epidemica (Plague Water)

Listed in: Moyle: Aqua Epidemica1

Category: Compound - Water

Goat's Rue
Goat's Rue (Galega Offininalis)
Rx: "Take Roots of Masterwort, Angelica, Pioney, and Butter-Burr, {of each 1/2 pound} of Spignel, Viper-grass, {of each 4 ounces}, Virginian Snake-Root {2 ounces} Leaves of Rue, Rosemary, Baum [lemon balm - Melissa], Carduus, Water-Germander, Marigolds with their Flowers, Dragons, Goats-Rue, and Mint {of each 4 minims}. Infused these some days in Spirit of Wine rectify'd {2 gallons} common Water {4 gallons} then draw off {4 gallons} adding to each of fine Sugar {1-1/2 ounces} and hang in the whole mix'd, ty'd in a Rag, of Saffron {1/2 ounce}."2

Description: "This is of frequent use, and a most excellent Water in all Cases that require Alexipharmicks [medicines to treat poisoning]. It revives the Spirits, and promotes a Diaphoresis [sweating - in poisoning, sweating is often used because it was thought to push the poison out through the pores]. To the Stomach it is very grateful [good]; and upon eating any thing that does nauseate, and is not like to digest well, a large Dram of this is of good service. It is the Basis of most Juleps [syrupy medicines] now prescribed, especially in Fevers, or any Diseases attended with a Fever."3

"This is said to be intended as a highly carminative Cordial [preventer of gas formation], in very low and languid Cases, and to raise the Spirits in the Plague and malignant Fevers. But in these Cases I suspect it of oding great Mischiefs, for the very same Reason that it gives a temporary Relief."4

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 2,3 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 344; 4 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 643


Aqua Falopy

Listed in: Woodall: Aqua Falopy1

Category: Compound - Water

De Morbo Gallico
Title Page of Falloppii's De Morbo Gallico,
From the Wellcome Collection (1528)
Rx: "For this water, if you desire the composition thereof, I referre you to the Authour, namely Gabrielus Fallopius in his Treatise De Morbo Gallico [Of Syphilis]: but hereafter I meane to set downe some severall compositions thereof, for the Authour hath divers."2 Woodall may have meant to set down the recipe, but it doesn't appear in his book. Since Falloppius doesn't call any of the several waters in his book 'Fallopius water', which of them Woodall is referring to here is not entirely clear.

Eighteenth century phyisican and chemist William Lewis does provide a recipe for Alum Water in his 1753 book The New Dispensatory that he explains "is taken from Fallopius, with the exchange of rose and plantane water for common water, which is equally fit for the purpose"3 His recipe features sublimed mercury, which Woodall notes is a central feature of the water he recommends.

"Aqua Aluminosa. Alum Water. Edinb[urgh Pharmacopoeia]
Take of
Corrosive mercury sublimate,
Alum, each two drams;
Water, two pints.
Let the sublimate and alum be ground into powder, and boiled with water, in a glass vessel, so the consumption of half the water; then suffer the liquor to settle, and pour it off clear from the sediment."4

Falloppius
Gabriel Falloppii, Wellcome Collection
Description: "It is a water proper: cheefely of Mercury sublimed, I say cheefely, for that though the other thing for quantity be ten for one, yet sublimed Mercury will carry no coales [not put up with any insults], but will ever shew his valour in healing or spoiling"4.

While Woodall lists this water in his book, he doesn't really recommend it and doesn't include it in the medicine chest. He appears to mention it in his book because some of the East India Company surgeons requested it. Woodall explains, "I put not this composition ready made into any Surgeons chest, but leave rather the Ingredients [in the chest], and let the discreet Surgeon make it to please himself, for if I my selfe should find such a composition made by any, I should much feare to use of it, and so I wish the Surgeons Mate to doe in all Mercuriall Lotions, and rather let him use such other good Lotions, as are set downe in the cure of the Scurvy, unto any which hee may adde sublimate, and tearme it if he please, Aqua Fallopy, but I say let him well understand himselfe both in the composition, and administration of any such medicines, or let him cause advise, or rather forbeare them, and use other safer medicines, though their vertues or vices perhaps be fewer."5

1,2 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 60; 3,4 William Lewis, The New Dispensatory, 1753,  p. 489; 4 Woodall, p. 60; 5 Woodall, p. 60-1


Aqua Foneniculi (Fennel Water)

Listed in: Tweedy: Aq. Foenicl.1

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: dry in the third degree (fennel)2; "califies (heats) onely in the second degree, or beginning of the third (fennel)"3

Fennel Plant
Artist: Franz Eugen Koehler
Fennel Plant and Details (1887)
Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."4

"Fennel Water. Aq. fœniculi vulgaris. From the herb."5

Description: Little is said about the properties of fennel water in the period dispensatories and pharmacopoeias being used here. Since it is a simple water, its properties were thought to be similar to those of the plant itself. Of the plant, John Pechey says, "The Powder of the Seed, taken daily, in the Morning, fasting, with Sugar, clears the Sight wonderfully. The seed strengthens the Stomach, and takes off Nauseousness: And being mix'd with Pectoral Medicines [medicines for the chest], it relieves those that are Asthmatick; and also resists Poyson."6

1 "158. John Tweedy's Bill for Medicines. November 8, 1743". Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, John Franklin Jameson, ed., p. 457; 4 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 161; 3 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 240; 4 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, 1821, p.304; 5 Gray, p. 306; 6 John Pechey, The Compleat Herbal of Physical Plants, 1707, p. 86


Aqua Hungarica (Rosemary Water)

Listed in: Woodall: Rosemary Water1

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: hot and dry in the second degree (rosemary)2; hot [calefactive] (rosemary)3; "hot and drie in the second degree (rosemary)"4

Rosemary Flowers
Rosemary Flowers
Rx: "Take Flowers of Rosemary {20 ounces}, rectify'd Spirit of Wine {30 ounces} let them infuse some days, then draw off as much as there was Spirit put in.

This is most conveniently made by the Copper Alembick [an alchemical still], taking care that the Receiver is closed with a Bladder to the end of the Worm [receiving vessel]. And this way common Spirit may be as well used as rectify'd [refined through repeated distillation]; observing not to draw it so low as to be cloudy: for after a certain Standard, the oily part of the Flowers, which is considerable will turn it milky. What runs afterwards, as a great deal will, which yet swells and tastes strong of the Flowers,  may either be kept to throw into the Still again, when the same is to be made, or used in the Shop for a small Spirit of Rosemary; and the last Runnings of all may pass for a good Simple Water under the same title."5

Description: "Rosemary Water. This is a great comforter of the braine, sharpneth the sight, helpeth the weaknesse of the stomacke, preserveth from vomiting, is very good against the disease Dissentery or the bloudy flix [flux], the cause proceeding of colde, either drunke, or three spoonfuls taken in a glister [clyster - enema], when you are ready to administer the same: and hath very many other good properties too long heere to recite."6

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 56; 2 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 205; 3 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 340; 4 Woodall, p. 115; 5 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 345; 6 Woodall, p. 56


Aqua Limoniorum (Lemon Cordial)

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Aqua Lymoniorum1

Category: Compound - Water

Lemons
Photo: Andre Karwath - Lemons
Rx: "Take of the outer yellow Rind of fresh Seville Oranges four Ounces, of Water as much, as is sufficient to prevent burning. Distill of a Gallon."2 Although this is the recipe for Orange Water, herbalist Robert James explains that "a Water was directed to be distill'd in the same Manner from Lemon Peel, which was, I presume, left out, because it loses its Flavour sooner than that of Oranges."2

Uses: "This is the tincture and chiefe essence drawne by spirit of wine from the rindes of Limons, which is a great Restorative to mans nature, and a precious Cordiall, which not onely aromatizeth [converts substances to aromatic compounds] the stomacke, but much strengthneth the feebled Spirits, and is as an healing balsam to all the inward parts of the body, and doth open obstructions and breake the winde in the stomacke exceedingly."3

"The Water... prepared from Lemon-peel has, by its fragrance, its agreeable penetrating and highly aromatic Taste and Virtue, immediately cured Flatulencies, Deliquiums [swooning], Faintings and irregular Motions of the Heart, tho' taken in a very small Dose."4

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 56; 2 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 127; 3 Woodall, p. 56; 4 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 637;


Aqua Melissæ Simplex

Listed in: Woodall: Balme Water1

Category: Compound - Water

Melissa (Balm)
Photo: Betty Cai - Melissa Officinalis (Balm)
Rx: "Take of Balm [lemon balm or melissa] a pound, Time, Penyroyal, of each three drams; Cinnamon two drams, Cardamoms the less, one dram, (And they are not the greater Cardamoms, as most of the Arabian Physitians held) Grains of Paradise half an ounce, sweet Fennel seeds an ounce, Nutmegs and Ginger, of each a dram; Galanga six drams, Calamus Aramaticus, Cyperus, of each one dra[m] and an half; Dictamni [dictamnus] half a dram. Let all of them be bruised and infused in eight pints of Spanish Wine, and six pints of strong Ale for twenty four hours together, and then distilled by an Alembick [an alchemical still], draw out of the stronger Water three pints."2

Description: "This water hath a great respect to the heart, for of all other of the former, no hearbe is esteemed more cordiall [good for the heart] then this, and is of a gratefull smell and taste, yet I holde it more proper to women then men, for it much respecteth the infirmities of the Mother, and is in the times of their paines very comfortable to take a little of it, for the safer and sooner provoking of speedy delivery"3

"The Simplex seem chiefly appropriated to the stomach, and therefore must needs strengthen cold and weak Stomachs, and it helps digestion: besides, Authors say, it restoreth memory lost, quickens the senses, keeps away gray hairs and baldness, strengthens the Brain, makes the heart cheerful, and helps the lisping of the tongue, and easethe the pains of the teeth, and causeth sweet breath."4

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 57; 2 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 99; 3 Woodall, p. 57; 4 Culpeper, p. 99


Aqua Menthæ

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Mint Water1, Moyle: Aqua Spiritus Menthæ2, Tweedy: Aq. Menth. Fort.3

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: hot and dry in the 3rd degree (Mint)6; hot & dry in the 3rd degree (Mint)7; "of a hot nature (Mint)"7; "hot and drie (Mint)"8

Mint Leaves
Photo: Kham Tran - Mint Leaves
Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."9

"Mint water. Aq. menthæ. Aq. menthæ vulgaris simplex. Aq. menthæ sativæ. Green herb {8 pounds} to the gallon [of water]"10

Description: "Aqua Mentha doth warme and strengthen the stomacke, liver, spleene or milt [spleen], helpeth concoction [combination of food], stayeth vomit, and is very cordiall."11

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 58; 2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 3 "158. John Tweedy's Bill for Medicines. November 8, 1743". Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, John Franklin Jameson, ed., p. 457; 5 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 151; 6 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 32; 7 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 315; 8 Woodall, p. 119; 9 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, 1821, p.304; 10 Gray, p. 307; 11 Woodall, p. 58


Aqua Mirabilis

Listed in: Moyle: Aqua Mirabilis1

Category: Compound - Water

Galengal
Artist: Franz Eugen Koehler
Galengal (Alpinia Officinarum) (1897)
Rx: "Take of Cloves, Galangals, Cubebs, Mace, Cardamoms, Nutmeg, Ginger, {of each 1 ounce} Juice of Celandine {1/2 pint} Spirit of Wine {1 pint} White wine {3 pint}. Digest together 24 hours, and then distil off {2 pints}."2

Description: "It is a pleasant and good Cordial, and greatly breaks Wind off the Stomach, and disperses Flatulencies."3

"The Simples [simple ingredients] also of this regard the Stomach, and therefore the Water heat cool Stomachs: besides Authors say it preserveth from Apoplexies [unconsciousness caused by stroke], and restoreth Speech lost."4

"This is intended as a warm stomachic [good for the stomach] Cordial, and is well contrived for that Purpose. But I think it deserves the Consideration of Distillers much more than that of Physicians, as it can answer no Purpose but what may be provided for by much less pernicious Medicines." 5

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 2,3 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 348; 4 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 95; 5 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 644


Aqua Odifera (Sweet Water)

Listed in: Woodall: Aqua Odorifora1

Category: Compound - Water

Rhodium Wood
Photo: Krzysztof Ziarnek
Source of Rhodium Wood - Convolvulus Dcoparius
Rx: "Take Mint, Marjoram, Basil, and Thyme, {of each 1 handful} Flowers of Lavender, Roses, Spikenard, Origany [oregano], {of each 2 pinches} Orrice [iris], Cinnamon, {of each half ounce} Labdanum {2 drams} Rhodium wood {half ounce} Aloes Wood {half dram} Malaga Wine, Water of Roses, Citrons, Marjoram,  Lillies of the Valley, Lavender, {of each 6 ounces} Vinegar of Lavender, Roses, Raspberries and Elder, {of each 3 ounces} Let them all digest together ten days, and then distl them; hanging in the Bottle, into which the Water falls, of Civet, Musk and Ambergrease, {of each half scruple}."2

Description: "Sweet water is very necessary and profitable to aromatize [give a pleasant scent to] the body and refresh the sences, it sweetneth the garments, taking all offensive savours [scents] away, and doth much exhilarate the spirits, being well composed of true Aromaticke Ingredients."3

"This is a right German Composition, tho it makes and admirable Water if rightly managed. Instead of the Water therefore of Roses, &c. ought to be put their respective Simples [the simple ingredients], and also of the Vinegars which are made by Infusion. This is a good Cordial, and may be taken at pleasure; but it would be more so, if Wine, or a proportionable quantity of Spirit, be put in the room of the distill'd Waters."4

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 60; 2 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 357; 3 Woodall, p. 60; 4 Quincy, p. 357


Aqua Papaveris Comp (Poppy Water)

Listed in: Moyle: Aqua Papaver. Comp1

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: cold [refrigerative] (Papaveris)2; "cold and dry in the fourth degree (Papaveris)"3

Poppy Flowers
Poppy Flowers (Papaver Somniferum), Malwa, India
Rx: "Take Flowers of wild Corn-Poppies {4 pounds} put upon them {2 pints} of White-Wine, and distil to a Dryness in the cold Still; repeat the Operation three times with fresh Poppy Flowers and the same Water, to each Pint of which put Nutmegs sliced {2 each} of white Sugar {2 ounces}.

This Water is almost quite out of practice; but if it be perform'd in the Alembick [chemical still], and with good Spirit instead of Wine, and to the last Cohabitation infused with fresh Leaves in the proportion of a Pound to each Gallon, with the Nutmegs, and adding the Sugar after it has stood in a gentle Warmth (about as much as that the Sun gives) for some weeks, it will make a beautiful colour'd and grateful Tintcture: but the Spirit at the last Distillation must be drawn pretty high, because the Juice of the last infused Flowers, which will press out with it, will bring it otherwise too low."4

Description: "...it is very well worth making because, besides its being a present Cordial [good for the heart], the Flowers give so much of their opiate Qualities, that it is very good in all cholick Pains, and will wonderfully procure almost present Ease in Gripings [pains] of the Bowels. Some Cholick Waters, which are so frequently advertis'd and cry'd up about Town [by patent medicine sellers], have their Virtues only from the same ingredient, and differ not from this in any thing material. This is also a good Alexipharmick [medicine for expelling poisons], and is very proper to give where Opiates are indicated in the same Intention. It's Dose from {2 drams) to {3 ounces}."5

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 2 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 348; 3 Woodall, p. 101; 4 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 348; 5 Quincy, p. 348-9


Aqua Peoniæ Comp

Listed in: Moyle: Aqua Peoniæ Comp.1

Category: Compound - Water

Peony
Photo: H. Zell - Peony (Paeonia Officinalis)

Rx: "Take fresh Lillies of the Valley {1 pound} Flowers of Pioney {4 ounces} of the Lime-Tree {1/2 pound} steep these together for some days in {4 gallons} of Spanish Wine, (Canary) and then draw it off to Dryness. To this distill'd Water add the Root of Male Pioney {2-1/2 ounces} white Dittany, long Birthwort {of each 1/2 ounce} Mistletoe of the Oak, Rue {of each 2 minims} Pioney-Seeds husked {10 drams} of Rue {3-1/2 drams}, Castor {2 scruples} Cubebs, Mace, {of each 2 drams} Cinnamon {1-1/2 ounce} Squills prepared {3 drams} Flowers of Rosemary {4 pinches} Stæchas and Lavender {of each 4 pinches} Betony, Clove Gilliflowers, Cowslips {of each 1 minim} Juice of Black Cherries {4 pounds}. Macerate [steep] well together, and again draw off the Water as before.

This Water is now much prescribed, but it is as injudicious a Recipe as almost any in the Dispensatory. The first Distillation is altogether needless: and the drawing off the Virtues of any thing Cephalick [used to treat the head], which consists in a Volatility of the Parts, by a cold Still, is abused and ridiculous. The Whole is therefore more conveniently digested together for some days, and then drawn off by the Alembick [chemical still]. which will raise everything from the Ingredients required; and if Spirit of Wine be added instead of the Wine, as much may be distill'd as was put in. The Flowers ought to be thrown into the Spirit as soon as gather'd, otherwise their Scent will be lost, especially the Lillies, which are the chief. And if the full quantity of neat Flowers are allow'd, it will greatly better the water; but their Dearness make many reckon Stalks and Leaves into the same quantity."2

Description: "If the Authority of [Swiss physician Thomas] Erastus, or daily experience will serve the turn, then was the Receipt chiefly compiled against the Convulsive Fits; but the derviation of the word notes it to be prevalent against the Falling sickness [epilepsy] also... It profits also in time of the fit, by rubbing their temples, nostrils, and Jaws with it."3

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 2 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 349; 3 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 91


Aqua Plantaginis (Plantane Water)

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Aqua Plantaginis.1, Moyle: Aqua Plantaginis2

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: cool (plantane)3; "cold and dry in the second degree (plantane)"4

Plantain
Photo: H. Zell - Plantago Major (Plantain)
Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."5

"Plantain Water. Aq. plantaginis. From the herb when in flower; vulnerary [heals wounds]."6

Description: "Plantane water is astringent [draws wounds together] and sanative [healing], good to them that are in a consumption of the lungs [tuberculosis], in a dropsie [edemas], or that have the bloudy flixe [bloody flux], against the quartane ague [fevers, usually malarial], and cureth the ulcers of the reines [kidneys], bladder, and excoriations [abrasions] of the passage of the yard [penis], and being drunk, helpeth against ardent urine, or the sharpnesse of the water."7

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 60; 2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 3 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 160 & Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 45; 4 Woodall, p. 101; 5 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopeia, p. 304; 6 Gray, p. 308; 7 Woodall, p. 60


Aqua Rosarum Album (White Rose Water)

Listed in: Moyle: Aqua Rosar. Album1

Category: Compound - Water

White Rose
Photo: Wiki User Acabashi - White Rose
Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."2

"Water of pale roses. Aq. rosarum albarum. From white roses [using the rose petals]."3

Description: Little is said about white rose water itself. Thomas Brugis simply advises, "White Rose Water. Is very good to put in Collyries for the Eyes."4

Some authors mention the white rose itself, advising that they were different than other types. Jean de Renou says, "All Roses have not the same faculty, for the pale relax, the red astringe [draw flesh together], both roborate [strengthen]; as also the common white and sweet for all sweet odours recreate and refresh the spirits"5.

Robert James says that white rose "grows in Gardens and flowers in June. The flowers are used, which are esteemed opthalmic [good for problems of the eye]."6

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 2 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopeia, p. 304; 3 Gray, p. 309; 4 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 157; 5 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 249; 6 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 421


Aqua Rosarum Damask

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Aqua rosar  damask1, Moyle: Aqua Rosar. Damasar2

Category: Compound - Water

Damask Rose
Photo: Kurt Stüber - Damask Rose
Humoral Property: "doth refrigerate [cool]"3

Rx: "Take of fresh damask Roses six Pounds; of Water as much as is sufficient to prevent Burning. Distill off a Gallon."4

"Rose Water, distilled from the petals of the Rosa damascene vel centifolia; or it may be made from otto [essential oil] of roses."5

Uses: "Dammaske Rose-water doth ...comfort the heart, is good against swounding [fainting] and causeth sleepe."6

"Medicinally it is aromatic, and feebly astringent [draws flesh together], and is popularly but erroneously supposed to procure abortion."7

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 59; 2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 3 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 59 & Woodall, p. 59; 4 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 634; 5 James Rennie, A New Supplement to the Pharmacopœpias of London, Edinburgh, Dublin and Paris, Baldwin and Cradock, 1833, p. 33; 6 Woodall, p. 59; 7 Rennie, p. 33


Aqua Rosarum Rubrum (Red Rose Water)

Listed in: Woodall-Chest: Aqua Rosarum Rubrarum.1, Moyle: Aqua Rosar. Rubrum2

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: cold in the second degree, dry in the third (red roses)3; cold in the first degree, dry in the third (others in the second) (red roses)4; "doth refrigerate [cool)"5

Red Roses
Photo: Yellow Cat - Red Roses
Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."6

"Water of Red Roses. Aq. rosarum rubrarum. Fragrant, but inferior to the common [damask] rose."7

Description: "Red Rose water doth ...binde and corroborate [strengthen] the vitall and animall faculties: benefitteth the head, easeth the pained eares and eyes, and doth good in Inflammations, and is profitable in medicines against Dissentery."8

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 59; 2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 3 "Tacuin Roseter34.jpg", Roses From the Theatrum of Casanatense, wikimedia commons, gathered 6/1/15; 4 "File:Tacuin Rosebis33.jpg", Roses From the Tacuinum of Vienna, wikimedia commons, gathered 6/1/15; 5 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 59 & Woodall, p. 59; 6 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopeia, p. 304; 7 Gray, p. 309; 8 Woodall, p. 59


Aqua Sassafras

Listed in: Woodall: Sassafras Water1

Category: Compound - Water

Humoral Property: hot and dry in the beginning of the 3rd degree (sassafras)2; "of a hot and drie temperament in the second degree (sassafras)"4

Sassafras
Photo: Larry Alain - Sassafras Albidum
Rx: "In respect to medicines, no great care is usually judged necessary [in preparing simple distilled waters], the herb just as collected, without any separation of decayed parts, or accidental mixture of dirt or other substance, is added to the water, distilled in a short-necked wide still as quickly as possible, and spirits of wine {2 drams}, or even more, added to each pint. Many do not even take this trouble, but rub a drop or two of the oil, with a little sugar, and add it to common water or other vehicle."4

"Sassafras Water. Aq. sassafras. From the root; diaphoretic [causes sweating]."5

Description: "The Spirit of this precious root is a great opener of all obstructions or stoppings in the body, namely of the liver, the lungs, the kidnies, and of the splene, and thereby it is found by many experiences excellent against the Scurvy, the French disease [syphilis], and in the yellow jaundise; it is an approoved remedy also against colde fevors and the dropsie [edema], or those which are enclining thereto, for it provoketh urine and sweat, in a very milde and naturall manner, and driveth out many diseases by the poores of the skinne, and hath infinite more vertues ascribed unto it: the best of these rootes grow in Virginia"6.

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 56; 2 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 287; 3 Woodall, p. 98; 4 Samuel Frederick Gray, A Supplement to the Pharmacopeia, p. 304; 5 Gray, p. 309; 6 Woodall, p. 56


Aqua Stiptica

Listed in: Moyle-Compound: Aqua Stiptica1

Category: Compound - Water

Oak Bark
Rx: "Cortex quercus intrins. [oak bark] bene contusus [bruised well], {1/2 pound} acet. Vin. rub. [red wine vineger] {2 pints} let it be in a Vessel well covered, and set to infuse is a remiss heat seven days; then pour it off, and repeate the infusion again as before, so often as that the Liquor [liquid] may be strong of the Bark, then strain, and add to the Liquor Pulv. Thuris [powdered frankincense], Sang. Draco [dragon's blood resin] {of each 1 ounce} stir it well, and boil it to a {pound}, afterward let it settle, and so strain it, and keep it in a bottle for use."7

Description: "The best Stiptick water (that I know) to stanch Blood".3 Styptic medicines stop bleeding by definition. Other period authors give recipes for Styptic waters, although they are quite different from Moyle's fairly simple recipe. Robert James' version relies on blue Vitriol [copper sulfate] and Alum.4 John Quincy's more complicated compound water employs colcothar [ferric oxide], burnt alum and sugar-candy among other ingredients.5

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 11; 2 Moyle, p. 11-2; 3 Moyle, p. 11; 4 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 658; 5 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 287


Aqua Theriacalis (Treacle Water)

Listed in: Moyle: Aqua Thriaculis1, Tweedy: Aq. Theriacal2

Category: Compound - Water

Green Walnuts
Photo: Nicu Buculei - Green Walnuts on the Tree
Rx: "Take Juice of Green Walnuts {4 pounds} of Rue {3 pounds} Carduuus, Marygold and Bawm [lemon balm - Melissa], {of each 2 pounds} fresh Roots of Butter-Bur {1.5 pounds} Burdock {1 pound} Angelica and Masterwort {of each 1/2 pound} Water Germander {4 minims} old Venice Treacle, Mithridate [compound medicines], {of each 1/2 pound} Canary {12 pounds} Vinegar {6 pints} Juice of Lemons made fine [clarified] {2 pints} Steep together two days and then distil, till there remains no Taste of the Ingredients."3

Description: "Treacle Water, Is good in the Plague or pestilential Fever, the French disease [syphilis]. It killeth Worms, helpeth the trembling of the heart, and is good to be mingled in Diaphoreticks [medicines to cause sweating]."4

"This water is exceeding good in all Fevers, especially Pestilential; it expelleth venemous Humours by sweat. It strengthens the Heart and Vitals. It is an admirable Counter poyson; special good for such as have the Plague, or are poysoned or bitten by venemous beasts, and expelleth virulent humours form such as have the French Pox. ...The Dose is from a spoonful to an ounce."5

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 30; 2 "158. John Tweedy's Bill for Medicines. November 8, 1743". Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, John Franklin Jameson, ed., p. 457; 8 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 351; 4 Thomas Brugis, The Marrow of Physick, 1669, p. 58; 5 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 94


Aqua Viridas (Green Water)

Listed in: Woodall: Aqua Viridas1

Category: Compound - Water

Verdigris
Verdigris
Rx: "mel. Comm. [Common honey] {2 ounces} viridis aeris [verdigris or subacetate of copper] {one dram} spir. Vini [Rectified spirit of wine] {4 ounces} coquantur ad tertiae partis consumptionem [heat over a fire until a third of it is consumed]."2

Description: "This Greene water which is held a maximum [the greatest of its type] by some Surgeons hath his tincture from Viridi Ære [verdigris], and likewise his astringent tast[e], and vertue, his chiefe use also is concerning the cures of Opthalmis in the eies, and also against divers rumes [rheums - running fluids from the nose and eyes], or distillations of humors troubling they eyes, guttarim or droppe-wise administred, the description of whose composition I referre the Reader to the rest of my compositions, where they shall bee found together; but I use in places thereof Lapis medicamentosus [the medicinal stone], which in his place also shall be spoken of."8

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 61; 2 Richard Wiseman, Eight Chirurgical Treatises, 3rd Ed., p. 317; 3 Woodall, p. 61


Cervissa Purgans (Purging Beer)

Listed in: Moyle-Compound: Cervissa Purgans1

Category: Compound - Water

Rhubarb
Photo: Evan-Amos - Prepared Rhubarb Stalks
Rx: "Rhab. [Rhubarb] Tumeric. Scindit. [shredded or separated] {of each 4 ounces}, Senna {2 ounces}, Agrimo. [agrimony] Cochlear. [Cochlearia armoracia - Horseradish] {of each 1 handful} Cervissa fort. [strong beer] {2 gallons}, infuse three dayes, then to be Patients ordinary drink, especially mornings and evenings."2

Description: A Purging Decoction.3 Purging medicines refer to both purging upward (emetics) and purging downwards (diuretics and laxatives).

1,2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 26; 3 Moyle, p. 24


Decoctum Amarum (Bitter Decoction)

Listed in: Moyle-Compound: Decoctum Amarum1

Category: Compound - Water

Citrullus colocythis
Photo: H. Zell - Citrullus Colocynthis Fruit
Rx: "Colocynth. [Citrullus colocynthis] Cem Fenicul. dulc. [sweet fennel seeds], Daucus [wild carrot - Queen Anne's Lace], Cumin. {of each 3 ounces}, Pulegium [pennyroyal], Thymum [thyme], Mother of Thyme [Thymus serpyllum] {of each a handful} Flor. Rosmar. [rosemary flowers] Camæm. [chamomile flowers] {of each 2 pinches} Rad fenicul [fennel roots] D. Currans [currants], {of each an ounce}, Cynam [cinnamon] {half ounce} Vin. Hispan. [Spanish Wine] {3 pints}, coque ad [cook to] {2 pints}, Colat. denique [lastly filter it], adde succ. Liquoricia Hispan. [Spanish licorice juice] 1 ounce, misce [mix]."2

Description: A Purging Decoction.3 Purging medicines refer to both purging upward (emetics) and purging downwards (diuretics and laxatives).

1,2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 25; 3 Moyle, p. 24


Decoctum Carminativum (Carminative Decoction)

Listed in: Moyle-Composition: Decoctum Carminativum1

Category: Compound - Water

Common Mallow
Photo: Joanna_Voulgaraki - Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris)
Rx: "Fol. malv. violar. [leaves of purple mallows - possibly Malva sylvestris, the common mallow] Betæ [leaves of beets], Mercur. Perietar. [possibly leaves of mercurialis perennis, a type of spurge] flor. Camam. [chamomile flowers] {of each a handful} Cem. fenicul. dulc. [sweet fennel seeds] contund [bruised] {1/2 ounce} Lini [flax] {2 drams} coque in aq. font. [cook in strong water] q. s. ad [as much as is sufficient to make] {1 pint}, f. decoctio. [let a decoction be made].

Then if you add to the above-named ingredients, these things following, you have the Carminative decoction: Cem. anici [aniseed], Cumin. [cumin seeds] Carni [meat?] Bacc. Laur. [bay berries] Juniper. [juniper berries] {of each 3 drams} Contusus [beat together into pulp], Passulæ solis [sun grapes?] {1.5 ounces}."2

Description: "the Carminative Decoction"3 Carminatives are used to prevent the formation of gas.

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 25; 2 Moyle, p. 25-6; 3 Moyle, p. 25


Decoctum Emollins

Listed in: Moyle-Composition: Decoctum Emollins1

Category: Compound - Water

Dog's Mercury
Photo: Wiki User Velella - Dog's Mercury (Mercurialis Perennis)
Rx: "Fol. malv. violar. [leaves of purple mallows - possibly Malva sylvestris, the common mallow] Betæ [leaves of beets], Mercur. Perietar. [leaves possibly of mercurialis perennis, a type of spurge] flor. Camam. [chamomile flowers] {of each a handful} Cem. fenicul. dulc. [sweet fennel seeds] contund [bruised] {1/2 ounce} Lini [flax] {2 drams} coque in aq. font. [cook in strong water] q. s. ad [as much as is sufficient to make] {1 pint}, f. decoctio. [let a decoction be made]."2

Description: "Then for Clysters [enemas] you must have ingredients: you will see by these... what there will be occasion for."3 Emollins likely refers to emollient, which means 'to soften.' Moyle indicates this is for enemas, suggesting it may be a stool softening decoction.

Robert James lists a similar decoction named Decoctum emmoliens pro fotu (emollient decoction for fomenting). His decoction is specified for bathing body parts rather than being used in enemas, although it does share some ingredients with Moyle's recipe including Mallow, and chamomile flowers4, likely due to their known emollient properties.5

1,2,3 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 26; 4 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 690; 5 See for example, James, p. 214 & 286


Decoctum Epithimum

Listed in: Moyle: Decoctum Epithimum1

Category: Compound - Water

Dodder
Photo: Stefan Laefner - Dodder (Cuscuta Epithymum)
Rx: "Myrobalans Chebs and Ind. [Chebulic and Indian Myrobalans] {of each 1 ounce} Stechas [Lavandula stoechas - French lavender flowers], Passulæ [grapes], Epithemum [dodder which grows on thyme], Senna, {of each 1 ounce}, Fumitaria [fumaria] {1/2 ounce} Maudlin. [Achillea ageratum] {5 drams} Polipod. [polypodium] {6 drams}, Turbith. {1/2 ounce}. Aq. font. [Strong water] {4 pints} coque ad [cook down to] {2 pints}, (the Epithemum [Cuscuta epithymum] excepted, which boyl but a walm [rolling boil] or two) then take it off, and add Helibor. nigr. [black hellebore] {1.5 drams] Agric. [possibly Agaricum] {1/2 dram} Sal gem. [Sal Gemmae - rock salt] {1.5 drams} steep them ten hours and then press it strongly out."2

Description: A Purging Decoction.3 Purging medicines refer to both purging upward (emetics) and purging downwards (diuretics and laxatives).

1,2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 25; 3 Moyle, p. 24


Decoctum Guiacum

Listed in: Moyle: Decoctum Guiacum1

Category: Compound - Water

Rasping Guaiacum
Artist: Jan van der Straet
Removing Bark From Guaiacum Wood (late 16th c.)

Rx: "Guiac. rasp. [raspings of guaiacum wood] {1/2 pound}, Sarsa. scindit [shredded sarsaparilla], {6 ounces}, Sassaphras, rad. Chyna [China root], {of each 2 ounces}, Liquorice {1 ounce}, Cem fenic. D. [fennel seed] {2 drams}, Passulæ [grapes] {1/2 pound}, coque in {cook in} aq. fontan. [Fontane Water] {16 pints to 8 pints}, to be drank four pints a day for thirty dayes together."2

Description: Moyle tells his surgical readers "You must likewise carry ingredients fo decoctum Guaiacum"3, explaining that the best recipe for it is given in his book.

Although Moyle does not explicitly give the purpose of this decoction, it seems to be for treating syphilis. Physician Jean de Renou says that all types of Guaiacum are good for "curing the French disease [syphilis]; for they calefy [warm], incide [resolve or break up], attenuate [reduce the force of], open, move sudour [sweat], exarceate putretude [remove rottenness?], and by special properties extinguish venereous poyson."4

Fellow sea surgeon John Woodall advises that two of the ingredients in Moyle's Decoctum Guiacum are good for treating syphilis. Sassafras, in treating "the Morbus Gallicus, or French pox [syphilis] it is a good medicine."5 Of Sarsaparilla, "principally it is good against the french pox."6 Given that these are the first three ingredients of Moyle's decoction, the purpose seems fairly clear.

1,2,3 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 28; 4 Jean de Renou, A Medicinal Dispensatory, 1657, p. 288; 5,6 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 98


Decoctum Senna Gereonis

Listed in: Moyle: Decoctum Senna Gereonis1

Category: Compound - Water

Senna
Photo: Wiki User Ziegler175 - Senna
Rx: "Senna {2 ounces}, Polipodi [polypodium] {1/2 ounce} Ginger {1 dram}, Passulæ [grapes] {2 ounces}, Sebestius [sebesten - berry from Cordia Plants], Prunes, {of each 12 in number} Flor. Borag. [borage flowers], violar. [violet flowers], Rosar rub. [Red Rose petals] {of each 2 drams}, decoct them in aq. fontan. [Fontane Water] {4 pints}, till half be consumed."2

Description: A Purging Decoction.3 Purging medicines refer to both purging upward (emetics) and purging downwards (diuretics and laxatives).

Nicholas Culpeper provides a recipe for a medicine of the same name that contains several of the same ingredients as Moyle, although he leaves out a few and adds several others. Of his recipe, Culpeper explains, "It is a common Decoction for any Purge, by adding other Simples and Compounds to it, according to the quality of the Humour you would have purged, yet in it self, it chiefly purges Melancholly [black bile, one of the four bodily humors]."4

1,2 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 25; 3 Moyle, p. 24; 5 Nicholas Culpeper, Pharmacopœia Londinesis, 1720, p. 17


Dr. Steevens Water

Listed in: Woodall: Dr. Steenens Water1

Category: Compound - Water

Apothecary
Making Medicines (NOT Dr. Steevens)
From the Wellcome Collection (early 17th c.)
Rx: "Take a Gallon of good Gascoyne Wyne [white wine from Gascony, France]: then take Gynger, Gallyngale [galangal], Camamyll [chamomile], Cynamon, Nutmegs, Grains Cloves, Mace, Annys seedes [aniseeds], Fenel seedes, Carawayes seedes: of every of them a dram. Then take Sage,Myntes, Redroses, Time Pelittory of the Wall [Parietaria officinalis], Wylde Margeru [wild marjoram], Rosemarie, Peny moutayne: otherwise called Wilde Time, Camamyll [chamomile], Lavender and Avens [Guem], of everi of them one handful: Then beate ye Spices small, and bruse the Herbs, & put al into the Wine: and let it stand .xii. howres [12 hours]: styrringe [stirring] it divers times: Then stil it in a Limbeck [alembic, an alchemical still], and keep the fyrst pint of the water, for it is the best: then wil come a second water, which is not so good as ye fyrst."2

Description: "This Water needeth no man to describe his vertues, being a thing so common and ancient in use, composed by that learned Physician of worthy memory so named, for experience hath found it to be a notable cordiall water for comforting the head and heart, yea, and all the principall faculties of the body, both Animall, Vitall and Naturall, if it be truely prepared, and of that there needeth no question if you will but believe the seller thereof."3

Of the mysterious Doctor Stevens (variously spelled Steevens, Stephens, Steeveyns and even Steenens due to phonetic spellings often used during this time), little is to be found. Writing after Steeven's death in 1573, John Partridge called him "M. Doctor Steeveyns Phisicion, a man of great knowledge and cunnyng"4. Partidge finishes his discussion of the water by noting, "It preserved Doctor Steevens that he liued .lxxx. [80] and .xviii: [18] yeares, wherof .x.[10] he lived bedred [bedridden]."5 So Steevens was apparently 98 when he died, being confined to his bed for the last 10 years of his life.

1 John Woodall, the surgions mate, 1617, p. 55; 2 John Partridge, The Treasurie of commodious Conceits, 1573, Transcribed by Johnna Holloway in 2010, p. 33; 3 Woodall, p. 55; 4,5 Partridge, p. 55


Elixir Proprietatis (Elixir of Property)

Listed in: Tweedy: Elixr. Proprietatis.1

Category: Compound - Water

Commiphora Myrrh
Artist: Franz Eugen Koehler
Myrrh Tree (Commiphora Myrrha) (1897)
Rx: "Take Aloes, Saffron and Myrrh, of each half an Ounce; cut and bruise them, put them in a tall Bolt Head [a round-bottomed flask with a long neck], pour twenty times their own Weight of the strongest distill'd Vinegar thereon, let them simmer together for twelve Hours: Then suffer the whole to rest, that the Fæces [waste - the leftover solids] may subside, and gently strain off the pure Liquor thro' a thin Linen. Put half the Quantity of distilled Vinegar to the Remainder, boil, and proceed as before, and throw away the Fæces. Mix the two Tinctures together, and distil with a gentle Fire, till the whole is thicken'd to a third; keep the Vinegar that comes over for the same Use; and what remains behind is the Elixir Proprietatis with distill'd Vinegar."2

Description: "This may be given from 10 to 30 Drops to Children and to grown Persons from 20 to 60 Drops, or more. It is a very good Stomach Medicine, and greatly fortifies and strengthens the Fibres, at the same time it deterges [cleans] and forwards the discharge of noxious Humours; which it very gently does, and therefore is a good Cathartick [laxative] for the Primæ Viæ [bowels], as well as a good Alterative in all manner of Cachexies [weaknesses or wasting of the body from long illness], where it is given in moderate Doses, and long continu'd. It is particularly good in pale wan Complexions, and will it self frequently cure the Green-Sickness [Hypochromic anemia]; but in hot florid Constitutions it does not so well, especially those subject to the Gravel [in the kidneys]. It is accounted very good to destroy Worms in Children, and certainly there is nothing better in keeping the Bowels clear of those slimy and viscid Humours, the Effects of Indigestion, which breeds them, than this Medicine does if frequently taken, viz. three or four Weeks together."3

1 "158. John Tweedy's Bill for Medicines. November 8, 1743". Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, John Franklin Jameson, ed., p. 457; 2 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 678-9; 3 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 390-1


Elixir Vitæ (Elixir of Life)

Listed in: Tweedy: Elixr. Vitae1

Category: Compound - Water

Elixir of Life
Image: Donato_d'Eremita - Dell' elixir vitae (1624)
Rx: "Take Nutmegs, Mace, Cinnamon, {of each 1 ounce} Cloves {1/2 ounce} the outer Rinds of Oranges and Citrons, {of each 3 drams} Saffron {2 ounces} Digest all together with a Sand-Heat [created by a sand furnace which heats a container of sand in which the vessels are set] in {3 pints} of Spirit of Wine rectify'd, for some days; and pour off the clear for use."2

Description: "This is a very good Composition of Cordial [for the heart] and Cephalick [for the head] Simples, is easily made, and kept in the [apothecary] Shops, and very readily mix'd with any liquid Forms for extemporaneous Practice. It may be given from 40 Drops to {2 drams} in any convenient Vehicle. This may be distill'd with a Retort [a closed vessel with an outlet tube], and what comes over titled Compound Spirit of Saffron; and an Extract made of the Residuum [remnants], call'd the Compound Extract of Saffron; and both will be excellent good Medicines in the above-mentioned Purposes."3

In alchemy, the Elixir of Life was a potion that was supposed to grant eternal life to those who drank it. It is sometimes equated with the philosopher's stone. However, the elixir presented here is clearly something different. Although it does not appear widely in 17th and 18th century dispensatories and pharmacopoeias, it appears in every edition of Quincy's Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea.4 (It does not appear in the William Lewis' reorganization of Quincy's Pharmacopoeia called The New Dispensatory, however.) Its' medicinal purpose is not very clear from Quincy's explanation, which suggests it to be an invigorating drink, combining ingredients that were considered good for the heart and head.

1 "158. John Tweedy's Bill for Medicines. November 8, 1743". Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, John Franklin Jameson, ed., p. 458; 2,3 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 394; 4 See John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1722 edition, p. p. 418, 1724 edition, p. 418, 1736 edition, p. 422, 1742 edition, p. 422 & 1782 edition, p. 437


Elixir Vitrioli

Listed in: Tweedy: Elixr. Vitriol1

Category: Compound - Water

Jar
Elixir of Vitriol
Rx: "'Take of Cinnamon, Ginger and Cloves, {of each 3 drams} Calamus Aromaticus {1 ounce} Galangals {1.5 ounces} Sage and Mint dry'd, {of each 1/2 ounce} Cubebs and Nutmegs, {of each 2 ounces} Wood of Aloes, Citron Peel, {of each 1 dram}. Powder them together, and add to them white Sugar-Candy {3 ounces} Spirit V. [Spirit Vini - spirit of Wine] {1.5 pints} and Oil of Vitriol [sulfuric acid] {1 pint}. Digest them together 20 days, and pour off the Liquor, and filter it for use.'

The Spirit had better be digested upon the Ingredients some time by it self, because the Oil of Vitriol gives a thickness to it, and disables it from taking out the Virtues of the Spices; and when put in, it must be done very gradually because it will else cause so sudden a Heat, as to endanger bursting the Vessel."2

Description: "This Medicine is greatly come into Practice of late, and very deservedly; for it mightily strengthens the Stomach, and will do good service sometimes where Bitters [bitter tasting medicines that are believed to help digestion] avail nothing, especially in Relaxations from Debauches or Over-feeding. ...It has an Influence also over many Distempers of the Head to advantage, and preserves against Epilepsies, Apoplexies [unconsciousness caused by hemorrhage or stroke], Palsies, and Rheumy Defluxions [running fluids in the nose and eyes]. It may be given from 10 to 30 or 40 Drops in any suitable Vehicles, once, twice or thrice a day; observing to take it when the Stomach is most empty, as fasting in the Morning, a little before Dinner, and in the Afternoon."3

1 "158. John Tweedy's Bill for Medicines. November 8, 1743". Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period Illustrative Documents, John Franklin Jameson, ed., p. 457; 2,3 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1719, p. 395


Enematic

Listed in: Moyle-Composition: Enemetic1

Category: Compound - Water

Clyster Syringe
Artist: Nicolas Arnoult
Rx: Moyle does not actually suggest a specific recipe for this generically named medicine. ("Enematic" simply means "Of or pertaining to enemas"2.) The name suggests a base concoction to which medicines can be added to create enemas targeted to specific problems. John Quincy lists such an enema.

"Decoctum Commune pro Clystere, Common Decoctions for Clysters [enemas]. 'Take of Leaves of Mallows, Violets, Pellitory of the Wall, Beets, and Mercury, {of each 1 mimim} of Chamomile Flowers {2 handfuls} of Sweet Fennel Seed {1/2 ounce} of Linseed {2 drams} and boil them in a sufficient Quanity of common Water to strain off one Pint.'"3

Moyle also repeatedly gives a recipe for a clyster in his text which he identifes as "the best of Clysters, and most used"4. He indirectly calls it an enematic, although his explanation suggests that a number of clysters could be so called. His touted recipe is made from other elements in his medicine chest, which could suggest it may not need a specific place to itself in the chest, however.

"Decoct. Emolliens, {16 ounces}. Electuar. Lenivium, {1.5 ounces}. Ol. Chamo. {1 ounce}. misce. fiat [make into an] Enema."5

Description: Of the Decoctum Commune pro Clystere, Quincy says "These are proper in ordinary Cases to relax the Belly, and give two or three Stools; and where these may be too ruffling, even Milk and Sugar may suffice."6

Of his favored clyster, Moyle says it is "one of the chiefest means that can be used, to check the Fever, whether this [is a] Calenture [tropical fever accompanied by delirium], or indeed any other, for it delicae brings forth the frothy Choler [yellow bile, one of the bodily humors], and draws down the vapouring Fumes, relieves the lower viscera [internal organs], asswaging the heat of the Bowels, and refresheth the whole Body."7

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 35; 2 "enematic", wiktionary.com, gathered 7/18/15; 3 John Quincy, Pharmacopoeia Officinalis & Extemporanea, 1722, p. 632; 4,5 Moyle, p. 162; 6 Quincy, p. 632, 7 Moyle, p. 162


Fomentationibus

Listed in: Moyle: Fomentationibus1

Category: Compound - Water

Sea Wormwood
Photo: Sten Porse - Sea Wormwood (Artemisia maritima)
Rx: "The Common Fomentation. Take Leaves of Southernwood, or of Lavender-Cotton dry, the Tops of Sea-wormwood also dry, Chamomile-flowers, of each one Ounce; of Bay-leaves dry, half an Ounce; of Water, three Quarts. After a slight Boiling, strain the Water off."2

Description: "This seems a convenient Basis for a Fomentation, to which Spirit of Wine, or whatever the Prescriber judges proper, may be added. The medicinal Virtues may be learned from those of the Ingredients which enter its Composition."

'Fomentationibus' simply means fomentation in Latin. Since John Moyle does not provide explanations for the medicines he suggests in his 'Exemplary Invoyce', the exact contents of Moyle's version of this foment can not be stated definitively. However, it must have been something that could be purchased at an apothecary shop for generic use based on Moyle's simple title. So the 'Common Fomentation', the basis for all other fomentations according to physician Robert James is a very likely candidate for this medicine.

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 35; 2,3 Robert James, Pharmacopoeia Universalis, 1747, p. 695


Fomentum Santivum (Healing Foment)

Listed in: Moyle-Composition: Fomentum Santivum1

Fomenting Bandage
Fomenting a Bandage, From L'Arcenal de Chirurgerie,
By Johannes Scultetus, p. 105
(1665)
Category: Compound - Water

Rx: "Herbæ Fomentationibus [fomentation herbs]: (Viz.) Hyperic. [St. John's Wort] Centaurii [centaury] Absynthii [absynth] Rosm. [rosemary] Laur. [laurinium - bay leaves] {of each 1 handful} Aqua font. [strong water] {10 pints}, Decoct. Colat. deinde [boil it down, then filter it]; adde Spir. Vin. com. [Compound Spirit of Wine] {2 pints}, to be applyed hot with stupes of Flannel."2

Description: "And for Inflammation, whether of Wounds, Burns or Scalds...you must have ingredients for your Vulnerary [healing] Fomentation to bathe and stupe the part withal. [This is] The best and most used"3.

1 John Moyle, The Sea Chirurgeon, 1693, p. 17; 3 Moyle, p. 16


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